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EFFECTIVE ELLIS ISLAND RESEARCH
Search for Ancestor Ships:
Immigrant Passenger Ships, by Louis
Tel: 011 49 40 3605 1282
Hamburg State Archives
The FHC at LDS has passengers sailing from Bremen to New York and on to known cities for the years 1847-1871. These lists represent only 20% of those sailing: Only those who were going to a specific city in the USA. Check at your FHC at LDS.
In profound awe, search the Ellis Island
Please note that Ellis Island received immigrants between 1892
and 1954. Before that they entered at Castle Garden, at the tip of Manhattan,
and before that at Port Richmond, Staten Island. The Staten Island Historical
Society has genealogical resources.
Other Departures / Arrivals at Google
Insert +ship +ship's name +year of interest
Crew Members & Mariners, Subscribe to:
Address to write to about steam ships:
Steamship Historical Society Collection
World's Foremost Authority on Ships, Michael
I think it is important to point out to researchers *all* their options for accessing U.S. passenger arrival lists. The lists of passengers on vessels arriving at U.S. ports from 1820 onwards have been microfilmed by the U.S. National Archives. For a detailed listing of these records, see the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) website at
For a detailed description of these records and their indexes, see Michael Tepper, "American Passenger Arrival Records; A Guide to the Records of Immigrants Arriving at American Ports by Sail and Steam" (updated and enlarged edition; Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1993).
Researchers may access copies of these microfilm records in the following ways:
1. At the National Archives in Washington, DC, and through the regional branch archives (note that individual regional branch archives will have microfilmed passenger lists only for vessels arriving at ports within their region).
2. Copies of individual microfilm reels can be borrowed through AGLL (American Genealogical Lending Library - http://www.agll.com).
3. The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has a complete set of the National Archives microfilms of passenger arrival lists, and researchers can borrow copies of individual reels through any LDS (Mormon) Family History Center. For researchers living in Southern California, the LDS Family History Center in Los Angeles has copies of almost all the passenger lists for the 19th century.
4. Several public libraries in the United States, most notably the Allan
County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana, also have large collections
of the National Archives microfilms of passenger arrival lists.
6. NAUSA--the institute for the study of emigration from Lower Saxony to the U.S. at the University of Oldenburg, of which Professor Holtmann is the director--also has copies of the National Archives microfilms of passenger arrival lists, and can search the microfilms for a fee.
GERMANS TO AMERICA, LISTS OF PASSENGERS ARRIVING AT U.S. PORTS. By Steve
The journal "The German Connection" is transcribing the "missing" Germans from that 1850-1855 period, and has gotten to July 1850 so far.
GERMANS TO AMERICA transcribes passenger lists only from the five major ports of U.S. immigration: New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, and New Orleans. The minor ports are excluded, such as Galveston, Texas, which for a period in the 1850s had more German immigrants than some of the major ports.
A scholarly and comprehensive criticism of GERMANS TO AMERICA can be found at: http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/nausa/pitfal.htm
Captains of German vessel sailing the North Atlantic passenger route were
In 1867 133,426 emigrants from Germany arrived in U.S. ports out of 138,394 Germans who emigrated. 88,725 of these emigrated via Bremen and Hamburg.
73,971 persons (from all countries) emigrated via Bremen and 38,170 (or 38.214) emigrated directly via Hamburg, plus 4,675 indirect emigrations through Hamburg (mostly to Hull and then overland by rail to Liverpool).
56,178 persons emigrated from Prussia.
The easiest way to determine the name of the ship and the port of departure is to locate the arrival record, possibly by using the Germans to America series as an index to the actual passenger list microfilm. The G to A series covers the period 1850-1891. There are problems with these volumes, though. If you don't find your immigrant listed, then try the Hamburg emigration lists for 1867. They are available on microfilm through Family History Centers of the LDS Church. The Bremen lists for this era were systematically destroyed after 3 years, so that becomes a moot point.
If you don't find your ancestor in either of these ways, check ZIMMERMAN and WOLFERT's series on passenger arrivals from Bremen to New York and hope that yours was among the 21% of all arrivals from Bremen whose arrival was noted in these volumes because their place of origin was noted on a New York arrival list. Unfortunately there are no indexes for NY arrivals 1847-1896.
|Passagierlisten in Deutschland
NAUSA in Oldenburg hat fast alle Listen von Niedersachsen aus den
The Free Library of Philadelphia
Genealogy Pathfinder - Passenger Lists, Immigration, Emigration, Naturalizations, Oaths of Allegiance and Passports
Official records of ships' passengers did not start until 1820, so you will not find records in the National Archives for the Colonial Period. Most of the records are from 1820 to 1945. These records include: customs passenger lists, immigration passenger lists, ships' captains lists. Most of them are indexed. In order to use these records, you first have to know the port of entry and the approximate date of arrival. Once you have this information, you may be able to find your ancestor of a ships' passenger list and, thereby, determine his exact date of arrival in the United States. For the colonial period, there are reconstructed lists of passengers available in various places, but not many of these would be found in the National Archives. If you don't know the port of entry and the approximate date of arrival, you may be able to find this information in the Naturalization records, if your ancestor applied for citizenship in the United States.
There are several different types of records: Declarations of Intention, Naturalization Petitions, Naturalization Depositions, Records of Naturalization, and Oaths of Allegiance. Not all of these records are in the National Archives. Many are in the court records of the various states. To make use of these records, you will have to do a little research to see where the records for your particular time and place are held. Between 1777 and 1790, each state handled its own Naturalization laws. In 1790, the United States passed its first Naturalization law. It concerned only white people who could become citizens after two years of residence. In 1798, the time was raised to 14 years, but it was lowered again in 1902 to five years (which is still valid). After 1802, several other requirements were added (such as proof that the person was in the country legally). In 1906, a stricter law was added. An immigrant had to first declare his intention to become a citizen and then, after an interval, he filled out an application. These applications contain a goldmine of genealogical information. The applications were checked by the nearest Federal Court, the applicant was examined before a judge, and then invited to give an Oath of Allegiance. After this, a Certificate of Citizenship was granted. The procedure is similar to this day. After 1930, the records will often includea photograph of the applicant. The National Archives has all of the records after 1906, and some of the records prior to that. A good resource for locating these records is A Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives, published by the National Archives Trust Fund Board. It is available in most libraries that have a genealogy collection or it can be purchased from the National Archives.
To order copies of Ships' Passenger Lists or Naturalization Records from the National Archives, you must use special forms. Write first and ask for the appropriate form.
General Reference Branch (NNRG)
You can write to this same address to request a free packet of information on the records and forms available from the National Archives. I would recommend that you do this first.
Sue Roe (SueMHR@aol.com)
AN EXAMPLE OF PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN SHIP'S PASSENGER
Ship "Gutenberg", from Bremen to Baltimore, arrived 19 Jun 1866
This ship had 337 passengers on board, 335 Germans. On the original passenger list (National Archives M 255, Roll 14) they all have the German states and the villages that they came from. However, "Germans to America" has only the villages of 111 passengers. Two thirds "lost" their villages. This vessel left Bremerhaven. For many descendants this passenger list is the only source to find the villages where their ancestors were born. In this case "Prussia" means for example "Burgsteinfurt" (Bernh. Breulmann) in the "Muensterland" and "Berleburg" (Karl Sauer) in the "Wittgensteiner Land". But "Germans to America" knows only "Prussia"; "Prussia" could be a village in East-Prussia near Russia or in the Rhineland near Belgium.
During the English colonial period, the port and the colony to which the immigrant came had supervision over the immigrant. The ship captain was required to keep a record of his passengers and hand over a copy of this document to port authorities. All foreign passengers were required to take an oath in writing, and an oral one, swearing allegiance to the English monarch. Those immigrants who could not write their names had the ship captain or a port official or some other literate person write for them. Indentured passengers who had indebted themselves were required to fulfill their financial obligations. Unencumbered passengers were free to go. After the American Revolution, immigration was the responsibility of the port and the state into which emigrating passengers came. When ports became overwhelmed by immigrants, the states asked Congress for help. The Castle Garden immigration station at the southern tip of Mahattan was set up in 1855 and all immigration became the responsibility of the Federal government. Later Ellis Island was developed near Manhattan Island, because Castle Garen was not large enough to handle the influx of people. Those arriving at other ports were also under Federal jurisdiction. In addition to ports along the eastern seaboard, New Orleans and San Francisco were important points of entry.
When Ellis Island ceased operation (1943) an immigrant to the U.
S. was required to get his permit (visa) from the U. S. Embassy or from a
U. S. official at the point of origin. Health exam papers and other required
documents were processed in the country of origin. Temporary work and other
visitor permits were also issued there. For one example of emigrant ship
travel, see the website by Roy Johnson, at
How to use the Family History Library in your Ship's Passenger
Go to: http://www.familysearch.org/
Type in the film number "listed" from the list of the Ports shown below.
Select the BLUE text: (Click on the BLUE TEXT)
Index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at miscellaneous ports in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, 1890-1924.( T517) Film # 1324938
A supplemental index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at Atlantic & Gulf Coast ports (excluding New York) 1820-1874.(M334) Film # 0418161
Copies of lists of passengers arriving at miscellaneous ports on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and at ports on the Great Lakes, 1820-1873.(Microcopy 575) Film # 0830231
Index (Soundex) to passenger lists of vessels arriving at Baltimore, 1897-1952.(T520) Film # 1373824
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at Baltimore, 1820-1921 ; Quarterly abstracts of passenger lists of vessels arriving at Baltimore, 1820-1869. Film # 0417383 (Microcopy 255) ( Microcopy 596) ( T844)
Index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at Baltimore, 1833-1866 (city passenger lists). Film # 0821565
Index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at Baltimore, 1820-1897 (Federal passengers lists). (Microcopy 327) Film # 0417212
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at Boston, 1820-1891 : with index 1848-1891. (M265) ( M277) Film # 0205656
Index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at Boston, Jan. 1, 1902-Dec.31, 1920; passenger lists of vessels arriving at Boston, Aug. 1, 1891-1935 ; book indexes to Boston passenger lists, 1899-1940.(T0521) (T843,T617,T790) Film # 1724620
Detroit District manifest records of aliens arriving from foreign contiguous territory : arrivals at Detroit, Michigan, 1906-1954.( M1478) Film # 1490449
Passenger and crew lists of vessels arriving at Galveston, Texas, 1896-1921; index, 1896-1951.( M1357 M1358 M1359 ) Includes indexes. Film # 1402451
Hamburg Passenger List, 1850-1934 Film # 0884668
Crew lists of vessels arriving in New Bedford, Massachusetts, 1917-1932. Film # 1578398
Index to passengers arriving at New Bedford, 1902-1954; Passenger lists of vessels arriving at New Bedford, 1902-1942. ( T944, T522) Film # 1412572
Index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at New York, June 16, 1897-June 30, 1902 ; Index (soundex) to passenger lists of vessels arriving at New York, July 1,1902 -December 31, 1943 ; Passenger and crew lists of vessels arriving at New York, 1897-1924.( T0621) (T0715) (T0519) Film # 0543449
Index (soundex) to passenger lists of vessels arriving at New York, July 1, 1902-December 31, 1943 (T0621) Film # 1379501
Passenger and crew lists of vessels arriving at New York, 1897-1924. (T0715) Film # 1403751
Register of vessels arriving at the Port of New York from foreign ports,1789-1919. (M1066) Film # 1415143
Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, NY, 1820--1897. (M237) Film # 0002246
Passenger and crew lists of vessels arriving at New York, 1897-1924.(T715) Film # 1403751
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at New York, 1820-1897 ; index to passenger lists of vessels arriving in New York, 1820-1846.(Microcopy 237) ( Microcopy 261) Film # 0350204
Book indexes to New York City passenger lists, April 1906-September 1920.(T612) Film # 1463601
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at New Orleans, 1820-1921 ;Index to
passenger lists of vessels arriving in New Orleans, 1853 -1952. Microcopy
T527, T618, M259, and T905. Film # 0543403. See also:
Index to lists of passengers arriving at Philadelphia, 1883-1948; book indexes, 1906-1926; passenger lists, 1883-1921. (T526, T791, 840) Film # 1380256
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at Philadelphia, 1800-1882 with index 1800-1906. (Microcopy 360) Film # 0419424
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at Portland, Maine, 1893-1943 ; Index,1893-1954. (T524) Film # 1412619
Book indexes, Portland, Maine, passenger lists, 1907-1930. (T793) Film # 1375989
Passenger lists, Providence, Rhode Island, 1911-1916 ; Book indexes, 1911-1934 ; Card indexes, 1911-1954. (T0518) (T0792) Film # 1412620
Index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at San Francisco, California,1893-1934. ( M1389) Film # 1430959
Passenger lists of vessels arriving in San Francisco from Honolulu, 1902-1907.(M1440) Film # 1454998
Customs passenger lists of vessels arriving at San Francisco, California,1903-1918. ( M1412) Film # 1463582
San Francisco, California, alien manifests : passenger lists of vessels arriving at San Francisco, California, 1893-1920.( M1410) Film # 1465571
Registers of Chinese laborers arriving at San Francisco, 1882-1888. ( M1413) Film # 1549566
Savannah passenger lists. (T943) Film # 1375955
Passenger and crew lists of vessels arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890-1921. (M1383) Film #1454937
Customs records of passenger manifests inbound, 1894-1909 : Port Townsend, Tacoma, and Seattle.( M1484) Film # 1445995
Passenger lists of vessels arriving at Seattle from U. S. insular possessions, 1908-1917 Port Townsend, Seattle, and Tacoma.( M1485) Film # 1445996
St. Albans District manifest records of aliens arriving from foreign contiguous territory : arrivals at Canadian border ports from January 1895 to June 30, 1954 : Indexes (Soundex), 1895-1924. ( M1461) ( M1463) (M1464) ( M1465) Film # 1472801 See also Canada's Pier 21
St. Albans District manifest records of aliens arriving from foreign contiguous territory : records of arrivals through small ports in Vermont, 1895-1924. ( M1462) Film # 1430987
Shipping Contract of 1753, Courtesy Sharon Cook Briggs
The following is Brigitte Burkett's translation in "Emigrants from Baden and Wurttemburg in the 18th Century" of a shipping contract made 23 March 1753 between Daniel Havart of Rotterdam and 44 [sic] Germans who with their families were emigrating to Pennsylvania. Perhaps 60% of these families came on the "Rowand," but some came on other 1753 ships and some not until years later:
"We, the undersigned, acknowledge to have agreed and contracted, according to the terms and conditions herein set forth, with Daniel Havart of Rotterdam, in the following manner. First, The above named Daniel Havart shall provide and hold ready, a good, comfortable and well appointed ship, to take us, the undersigned, across the sea from Rotterdam to Philadelphia. To this end, the ship will be provided with permanent sleeping places between decks for each & every full grown person, that is to say, a so-called full freight, six feet long and one and one half feet wide, on both sides of the ship, made private & comfortable. Second, The ship shall be provided with good provisions, that is, good bread, meal, meat with peas, rice, groats, peas, butter, cheese and everything else of such things, and they shall be provided to the undersigned from the day that we board the ship in Rotterdam until we arrive in Philadelphia, in the following manner, that is:
Sundays, a pound of meat with peas, rice or beans.
Further, a measure of beer per day, so long as it remains good, and also a measure of water, but after [the beer goes bad] two measures of water per day. Also in the mornings at [6 bells?], a fire shall be provided until evenings at six o'clock, for cooking, and to warm the sick and the small children, insofar as wind and weather will allow.
Also, for the care of the thirsty sick, two vats of vinegar & one vat of brandy will be included, as also spices, so that they will not be robbed of their health or their lives because of the lack of these things, as also the necessary [medicines?] The persons shall be charged according to their age; small children under the age of four are free; from four to fourteen years of age, they must pay half fare, and all those who have reached an age over fourteen years must pay the full fare in the following manner: All those who pay their entire, or at least half their fare in Rotterdam, may pay 7 1/2 Pistole. Those, however, who can pay nothing, must pay a comparable fare of 8 Pistole for their care. In order to deliver the passengers, with their baggage without further charges free to Philadelphia. [The balance of the contract has not been translated. The list of names appended to the contract follows. The number following each name indicates the number of "freights" for which the head of family is being charged. The names marked with an * came on the Rowand, Arthur Tran, Master, which qualified 29 Sept 1753.]
23 March 1753
1* Johann Martin Buchner 5 freights
3* Johann Henrich Kühnem 2 1/2
4* Johannes Schäfer 2
5* Johann Peter Meyer 2
6* Johann Philippus Steinebach 1
7 Johann [Primes?] Schmitt 1
8 Maria Elisabetha Gläsnerin 1
9 Anna Catherina Gläsnerin 1
10* Johannes Sehlbach 2 1/2
11 Johan Peter Humerich 1
12* Johann Henrich Böhmer 2
13* Johannes Wilhelm Jung 2
14* Johannes Stefan Klöckner 1
15* Johann Martin Diehl 2
16 Johann Andönges [?} Klockner 2 1/2
17* Johann Peter Braun 1
18* Philippus Schumann 3 1/2
19 Johannes Weytmann 1
20 Johann William Schoester 1
21* Sophia Christina Wisthövörin 1
22 Peter Stahl 1
23 Johann Jost Ludwig 4 1/2
24 Johann Jacob Klein 2
25 Johannes Betz 1
26* Johann Wilhelm Becker 2 1/2
27* Johann Christ Stahl 2 1/2
28 Görg Gotthardt 1
29 Johann Christoffel 1
30 Johann Jacob Gotthardt 1
31* Johann Best Heun 1
32 Anna Catrina Gendermannin 1
33* widow of Hennrich Weinbrenner 3
34* Johann Best Schneider 2 1/2
35 Marialies Schneiderin 1
36 Anna Catharina Schneiderin 1
37* Johannes Christianus Bentz 6
38 Johann Gerlachmeier 2
39 Johann Michael Sauer 1
40 Johannes Streng 1
41 Johann Peter Klöckner 2
42 Johann Michel Andres 1
|An advertisement by an "Agent" hired by the steam ship line
"Norddeutschen Lloyd," to work in the regions of Hessen-Nassau, Waldeck und
Pyrmont. An Agent rounded up persons who would report to his address and
from there they would be escorted to the Port of Debarcation.
Upon your arrival at the port in Hamburg present your passage certificate. On board, pack all of your things so that those that you need while underway are readily available, and those that you do not need, put under your bed. They will be the things you do not need to see again until you arrive in America. Boxes and luggage will be placed under the deck. You are permitted 100 pounds of these items per adult, for free. Beyond that, you will have to pay a fee. Be sure to mark your boxes and luggage very clearly in a bold color, right on the item: Your name, your address in America. Cards and notes stuck to these items will fall off, and you will lose everything. Once in New York, present the letter that I have prepared for you. There will be someone there to take you directly to the train station. While underway, especially in the coastal areas, do not discuss your affairs with anyone other than the officials. There are thieves everywhere - they will steal your money and belongings at every opportunity. Please, do not trust anyone other than the officials! That way, your journey will be comfortable and without incident. Do not eat a lot aboard ship. You will feel much better on the long journey over water. Upon arrival in New York you will have a fierce hunger, but beware! Many have gorged themselves with food upon arrival, and suffer life-long stomach maladies as a result.
Once more, may your journey be comfortable and without incident! Happy Journey!
Signed: __________, Agent
to Pennsylvania and Oaths of Allegiance
SHIPS AT SEA DEATHS, Hamburg-Amerika Line
You must state the name of the individual who died on board. You must state whether the ship was outbound or inbound. You must state the name of the ship. You must state the dates of the voyage.
Sterberegister, Seemannsamt (Death Register, Seaman's Office)
SHIP MUSEUM WITH PHOTOGRAPHS
Travel by Ship (German Language)
|Eine Schwäbin aus Herrenberg, die 1786 mit dem
"Herzog von Wirtemberg" zu ihrem schon vorher ausgewanderten Mann
nach Amerika fuhr, erzählt in einem Brief: "Es werden die Menschen wie
die Heringe zusammengeladen, weilen ein Schiff 400, 500, 600 Seelen führt,
ohne der unzählig vielen Gerätschaften, Kisten, Proviant, Wasser, Fässer
und dergleichen. Während der Seefahrt aber entsteht in denen Schiffen
jammervolles Elend, Gestank, Dampf, Grauen, Erbrechen und vielerlei
Krankheit, Fieber, Ruhr, Kopfweh, Geschwulsten, Scharbock, Mundfäule und
vielerlei anderes, welches alles von alten und scharf gesalzenen
Speisen, auch von dem sehr schlimmen Wasser herrührt. Dazu kommt viel
Hunger und Durst, Frost, Hitze, Nässe, Angst, Not, Anfechtungen und
Wehklagen, nebst anderem Ungemach, wie Läusen und solchem. Dieser
Jammer steiget aufs höchste, wenn man Tag und Nacht Sturm ausstehen muß
und glaubt, daß alles werde zugrunde gehen müssen. Wann dann die Schiffe
nach der langen Seefahrt bei Philadelphia gelandet sind, so wird niemand
herausgelassen, als wer die Seefracht bezahlt hat. Die anderen müssen
solange im Schiff liegen bleiben, bis sie gekauft und durch ihre Käufer
losgemacht sind. So geschah es, daß erwachsene Personen ganz nach
Beschaffenheit ihrer Stärke und Alters drei, vier, fünf, sechs Jahre zu
dienen sich schriftlich verpflichten mußten" (Schwarzwälder Hausschatz
1963, S. 159). Courtesy Dieter Joos.
|Courtesy of Alan Jones
If your ancestor arrived after 1819, he/she may be listed in one or more of the following. These lists are in chronological order by the date of arrival, and the lists for one year may be on as many as twenty microfilms. Some of the lists are indexed.
New York City (23,960,000)
1820-1846 FHL computer number 15681
1820-1897 FHL computer number 15681
1848-1891 FHL computer number 217426
1820-1873, 1884-1891 FHL computer number 217426
1820-1897 FHL computer number 218234
1800-1906 FHL computer number 216604
1800-1882 FHL computer number 216604
1853-1952 FHL computer number 216594
1820-1921 FHL computer number 216594
*Also see the Supplemental Index described below.
Other Ports (4,000,000). Lists and indexes for Charleston, Galveston, Key West, New Bedford, Passamaquoddy, Portland (Maine), Providence, San Francisco, Seattle, and other ports are also at the Family History Library and the National Archives.
A collection of the lists of over 60 smaller ports is found in: United States. Bureau of Customs. Copies of Lists of Passengers Arriving at Miscellaneous Ports on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. . . . Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1964. (FHL films 830231-46; computer number 216254.) These lists range from 1820 to 1874, but most years are missing.
An index to the above lists is:
National Archives Record Services, 1960. (FHL films 418161-348; computer number 216582.) This also indexes lists for Baltimore (1820-1869), Boston (1820-1874), New Orleans (1820-1850), and Philadelphia (1820-1874). See also http://www.genesearch.com/neworleans/.
|Exhausted? But You've Just Begun!
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